Austrian War Memorial on the Heights of Lipa on the KÃ¶niggrÃ¤tz battlefield
Since I wrote my MA thesis on the Battle of Königgrätz I figured I would put up a post here noting that today is the 145th anniversary of the battle, which was fought on July 3rd. The battle was significant for many reasons but the most notable is that it marked the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire against the Prussians and thus signified the start of undisputed Prussian leadership of what would become modern Germany. After Königgrätz all the German states had no choice but to fall in line behind the Prussian Confederation and conform to Prussian practices. It was the culminating battle of the second of the Wars of German Unification and arguably the most important. The defeat of France in 1871 was just thew icing on the cake and allowed the Prussian king to declare the establishment of the German Empire, which had de facto existed since 1866.
A paper I wrote on the battle but not my Thesis.
This book is an interesting read to say the least, Dr. Citino makes the case that there is a specifically German â€œway of warâ€. That way, is what he calls operational maneuver. He traces the development of this â€œway of warâ€ from the 17th century battles of the Frederick William I, the â€œGreat Electorâ€ of electoral Brandenburg and scion of the Hohenzollern Dynasty through to the end of World War II and the final defeat of Nazi Germany. I am not myself so convinced that the discussion should end there based on my experience talking to current German soldiers about war and battle during partnership exercises while I have been stationed in Germany. The current state of operational thought in the Bundeswehr is a topic for another post though. (Bing! Idea Grenade)
Dr. Citino also rightly points out in numerous places that the study of military history should not be a form of â€œarmchair generalshipâ€. He says that instead â€œThe primary question for historians should not be what someone ought to have done, but why they did what they did.â€, (original italics pg. 269)
While I generally agree with Dr. Citinoâ€™s assertion about Prussian/German war making methods, I am not so certain that it is possible to trace such a method back to the wars of the Great Elector as he has done except in a very vague way. I simply do not think it is possible to talk about the operational level of warfare when one is speaking of armies small enough for one man to personally command. In my opinion, the first time you can really start talking about an operational level of warfare, is the Napoleonic wars. That was the first time that a commander had no choice but to rely on subordinate commanders to maneuver and fight significant portions of his army without him being able to take personal control. This was a function of both the size and geographic distribution of the armies involved. There was no operational level involved when dealing with armies of 20-30,000 men that marched and fought as essentially a single unit, even when one wing was detached at the point of contact. Armies of 50,000 and more that marched as separate units and could fight independently or together are a different matter entirely.
I do think that Dr. Citino has hit on an overlooked part of the German â€œway of warâ€ in his recognition of a German tradition of a preference for offensive operations and a culture of Ã©lan that was nurtured within the culture of German military leadership. It is this preference for offensive over defensive warfare that sets German military tradition apart from other armies. No other army has so consistently sought to achieve a rapid decision in war as the Germans. Dr. Citino is also right in citing first Brandenburgâ€™s and later Prussia’s and Germanyâ€™s strategic situation for fostering the desire for rapid victory. The wonder as I see it is that Germany was so successful in achieving this over the years. That is one of the things that makes the study of Prussian military history so interesting, they have won many wars they should have lost because of their method of making war.
The German Way of War is one of those rare military history books that are accessible to the layman while being written for the academic community. It is unfortunate that so many histories are written in such a style that the average person cringes and puts the book down after only a few pages if they even hazard to pick the book up in the first place. This is not one of them. It is extremely well written with only a few editing mistakes that I saw and the most notable was the substitution of the name of the city of KÃ¶nigsberg in East Prussia instead of the Battle of KÃ¶niggrÃ¤tz in a list of major German 19th century victories on page 236 and some minor spelling errors and omissions of words. The books includes extensive notes and source citations, the bibliography alone runs to 27 pages and is a valuable guide to the available literature on German Military history all by itself. I highly recommend this book.
Well, I figured it is time for another update.Â I have made the first round of changes to my rough draft and turned them back in and my thesis made it past my professor and is now in the hands of the second reader.Â It went up to the second reader Tuesday and I should get it back sometime next week for corrections, if any.Â If there are no corrections needed it will go the department Chair and then I will get a final grade for the thesis and the thesis class.Â
At that point I will be done with my thesis and should only need to receive word from the university that I have met the requirements for graduation.Â If that happens then my current conferral date will be 15 May and I will be the proud holder of a Master of Arts Degree in European History.Â As long as the final grade on my thesis class is not below a C, I should graduate with honors.Â I currently have a 3.93 GPA and don’t think I really have to worry about getting a bad grade on my thesis but I am keeping my fingers crossed anyway because the class is not over.
As ever, stay tuned.
I got my rough draft back from my Thesis professor this morning with the first round of requested corrections.Â It actually looks much better than I thought it would.Â There are not as many corrections as I expected and so I will start working on revising it tonight after I get home from work.Â I just quickly glanced at it this morning.Â I guess it will take me two or three days to make the requested corrections.
After I make corrections and resubmit it as a final version, it will go to a second reader in the history department for a final round of changes.Â After the second reader gets done and final changes are made it gets submitted to the university for publication and I will get my final grade for the thesis.Â So far, I have a 3.93 GPA and if I pass my thesis with distinction I will graduate with honors, which is what I have been trying to achieve since I started my MA program three years ago.Â We will see what happens.
Tune in for updates.
Well, I just finished the final revisions to my rough draft before I submit it.Â It is a great felling.Â The final paper ended up at 85 pages and it was actually much easier to write than I thought it would be.Â Now all that is left to see is what my thesis adviser thinks of it.